This area of our website presents PDF information on Space Weather from a variety of sources. Most are easy reading; however, some are a bit technical. I indicated files containing technical data with the word TECHNICAL or phrase SEMI-TECHNICAL. There are currently 25 PDFs.

PDFs are presented alphabetically, not with a particular sequence of reading in mind.

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Download File 1. A Profile of Space Weather — Primer

—NOAA Space Weather Prediction prepared a basic primer on Space Weather. 11 pages.

Download File 2. FlipChart Aurora V4

—NASA prepared flip chart about Auroras. 7 pages.

Download File 3. FlipChart Magnetosphere V4

—NASA prepared flip chart about the Magnetosphere. 8 pages.

Download File 4. FlipChart Storm Signals V4

—NASA prepared flip chart about Storm Signals. 7 pages.

Download File 5. FlipChart Sunspot Regions V4

—NASA prepared flip chart about Sunspot Regions. 15 pages.

Download File 6. Solar Activity and Space Weather: Introduction to Space Weather

—An introduction to space weather from Haystack Observatory, MIT. 8 pages.

Download File 7. Mysteries of the Sun

—An introductory eBook presented by NASA's Heliophysics Division of the Science Mission Directorate. 20 pages.

Download PDF File 8. NASA Educator's Instructional Guide V4

—NASA prepared space weather guide for educator's. 26 pages.

Download PDF File 9. Radio Wave Propagation

—A Space Environment Laboratory article about the frequencies of the Sun's electromagnetic radiaion. 4 pages. TECHNICAL

Download PDF File 10. Solar Flares - Magnetohydrodynamic Processes

—Living Reviews in Solar Physics presents a paper on the magnetohydynamic processes of solar flares. 99 pages. TECHNICAL

Download PDF File 11. Solar Storm Threat Analysis

—A James A. Marusek paper on solar storm threat analysis. 29 pages. TECHNICAL

Download PDF File 12. Space Weather — Its impact on Earth and implications for business

—Lloyd's, one of the world's leading insurance specialists, published a report on how space weather may impact earth and affect businesses. 36 pages. SEMI-TECHNICAL

Download PDF File 13. Space Weather — Storms from the Sun

—A NOAA booklet on space weather. 12 pages.

Download PDF File 14. Space Weather — The Solar Perspective

—Living Reviews in Solar Physics presents a paper on the Sun's power and affect on Earth. 74 pages. TECHNICAL

Download PDF File 15. Space Weather 101 — Resources

—NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center education and outreach resources. 2 pages.

Download PDF File 16. Space Weather Indices

—Australian government Bureau of Meterology classification of space weather indices. 1 page.

Download PDF File 17. Space Weather Slide Presentation for Schools

—A NOAA Research PDF slide presentation on space weather. 27 pages.

Download PDF File 18. The Ionosphere

—Paper on the ionosphere by the Space Environment Center in Colorado. 4 pages.

Download PDF File 19. Tracking Sunspots

—A NASA prepared teacher-led classroom exercise for pairs of students. 25 pages.

Download PDF File 20. Turbulent Diffusion in the Photosphere

—A paper on the Turbulent Diffusion in the Photosphere as Derived from Photospheric Bright Point Motion. 22 pages. TECHNICAL

The National Academies Press

The National Academies Press offers free PDF books/reports online. Following are four that related to Space Weather.

Download PDF File 21. Technical Evaluation of the NASA Model for Cancer Risk to Astronauts Due to Space Radiation

—NASA's current missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and potential future exploration missions involving extended stays by astronauts on the lunar surface, as well as the possibility of near-Earth object (NEO) or Mars missions, present challenges in protecting astronauts from radiation risks. 94 pages. SEMI-TECHNICAL

Download PDF File 22. The Effects of Solar Variability on Earth’s Climate — A Workshop Report

—The Sun varies over a broad span of timescales, from its brightening over its lifetime to the fluctuations commonly associated with magnetic activity over days to years. The latter activity includes most prominently the 11-year sunspot cycle and its modulations. The September 2011 workshop summarized in this report explored the connection between this kind of activity and Earth's climate variability. 71 pages. SEMI-TECHNICAL

Download PDF File 23. Severe Space Weather Events: Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts — Workshop Report

—The adverse effects of extreme space weather on modern technology-power grid outages, high-frequency communication blackouts, interference with Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation signals, and spacecraft anomalies are well known and well documented. We do not yet understand the potential economic and societal impacts of the disruption of critical technological systems by severe space weather. 145 pages. SEMI-TECHNICAL

Download PDF File 24. Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society — An Overview (2014)

—This booklet provides an overview of the most recent National Research Council decadal survey of solar and space physics, Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society (The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2013), authored by the Committee on a Decadal Strategy for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics). 37 pages. SEMI-TECHNICAL

Download PDF File 25. Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society — 2013

—Earth's star is far more complex and variable than it appears to the naked eye in the daytime sky. Sunspots as large as several Earths dot the surface with intense magnetic fields thousands of times stronger than the average background field. Each active region on the Sun can grow, decay, and reorganize on timescales of minutes to months, and collectively the spots emerge in groups that define the roughly 11-year activity cycle and 22-year magnetic cycle of the Sun. 467 pages. SEMI-TECHNICAL

Space Weather and Gamma Ray Bursts

Download PDF File 26. A Brief History of the Discovery of Cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts — 2013

—Easily read. 2 pages.

Download PDF File 27. Bohdan's Impact on Our Understanding of Gamma-ray Bursts

—Bohdan Paczy‚nski was one of the pioneers of the cosmological GRB model. His ideas on how GRBs operate and what are their progenitors have dominated the field of GRBs in the hectic nineties during which the distances and the origin of GRBs were revealed. Tsvi Piran discusses here Bohdan's contributions in some historical perspective. 19 pages. SEMI-TECHNICAL

Download PDF File 28. Discovery of Gamma-ray Bursts

—The launch of Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) in 1991 was the first major step toward a better understanding of the GRB phenomenon. The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) onboard CGRO established the isotropic distribution of these explosions at a very high statistical signifcance and also showed the deviation of their brightness (defined by the burst peak flux) distribution from Euclidean at the faint end (Meegan et al. 1992). 5 pages. SEMI-TECHNICAL

Download PDF File 29. Gamma-rays and Cell Phones

—An article by Melissa Gibby, Jacobs ESTS Group and GBM Operations Scientist, Science and Mission Systems Office. 2 pages.

Download PDF File 30. MagnetoHydroDynamics of Gamma-Ray Burst Jets

—A PDF presentation best viewed in full-screen mode. 33 pages. TECHNICAL