Embedded design, particularly the type engaged in by electronics enthusiasts, leads eventually to gleaning knowledge about a number of things. This includes knowledge of batteries, Arduino, AVR, BeagleBone Black, Raspberry Pi, C language, and C++ language, among others on a long list.

PDFs/Links presented on this page address some of these items, and are intended to serve as a starting point for extended exploration; therefore, PDFs listed here are not by any means inclusive.

PDFs/Links presented on this page are tools, simply tools!

Many electronics entusiasts struggle once they realize that embedded design includes learning to use new tools. This is not uncommon; however, some put off to the side their initial enthusiasm because they feel frustrated. PDFs/Links included here are meant to assist the electronics entusiast to approach learning a bit differently, and perhaps, with a bit less frustration. That is all. Nothing more; nothing less.

Over the years I had downloaded and converted information to PDFs for personal use; however, in order to honor copyright laws, I will not post those PDFs here. Rather, I've provided links to corresponding online sites; thus, some of the PDF icons lead to an online site.

Datasheets are also quite important! >500 datasheets appear on the Datasheets Gallery page on this site.

Although mentioned elsewhere, this site does not offer forums or a blog; simply information for the electronics enthusiast willing to Search & Learn! Information contained herein was found useful in my own Search & Learn explorations.

The 116 PDFs/Links appearing on this page are presented alphabetically within alphabetically listed categories, not with a particular sequence of reading in mind.


116 Embedded Design PDFs/Links

Alkaline Batteries

Download File 1. 10 Things You Should Know About Designing with Batteries

A list. 2 pages.

From: 10 Things You Should Know About Designing with Batteries

Download File 2. Battery Contacts

Article about battery contacts. 9 pages.

From: Battery Contacts

Download File 3. Duracell Battery Cavity Design

A guide on battery cavity design prepared by Duracell. 9 pages.

From: Duracell Battery Cavity Design

Download File 4. Glossary: Technical Battery Terms

A glossary of battery terms. 5 pages.

From: Glossary: Technical Battery Terms


Download File 5. Arduino Programming Notebook by Brian W. Evans

Brian states, "This notebook serves as a convenient, easy to use programming reference for the command structure and basic syntax of the Arduino microcontroller." 40 pages.

From: Arduino Programming Notebook

Download File 6. Hardware Interrupts

The purpose of this page is to introduce the student to hardware interrupts on micro-controllers.

From: Electronics for Students and Hobbyists

Download PDF File 7. LED Control

An Arduino library for the MAX7221 and MAX7219.

From: Arduino Playground

Download PDF File 8. Arduino Fast Fourier Transform

Posted on 05 Oct 2010, 21:35, by Didier, under DSP, Vibration sensors.

Didier wrote, "Conceptually speaking FFT is pretty simple. Practically, FFT is tough! So that I will not go into all the details of this algorithm and I will stay focused on its use and applications. This series of posts will end up with a fully featured library that you will able to use for all sorts of applications, without bothering about the math."

From: Arduino Fast Fourier Transform

Download PDF File 9. Democode for the LedControl-library

Here are a few demo-sketches using the LedControl-library.

From: Arduino Playground

Download PDF File 10. Arduino in a Nutshell — Jan Borchers

This link takes you to the Arduino site where you'll be able to download the latest version. 20 pages.

From: Arduino Playground


Download PDF File 11. AVR Libc User Manual

The AVR Libc package provides a subset of the standard C library for Atmel AVR 8-bit RISC microcontrollers. In addition, the library provides the basic startup code needed by most applications. 417 pages.

From: AVR C Runtime Library Summary

Download PDF File 12. AVR Programming Introduction by Hackaday

From: Hackaday

Download PDF File 13. AVR Tutorial by Ladyada
A step-by-step how to start AVRs.

From Ladyada's AVR Tutorial

Download PDF File 14. AVRDUDE User Manual

A program for download/uploading AVR microcontroller fash and eeprom. 34 pages.

Download PDF File 15. WinAVR User Manual — 20100110

WinAVR is a suite of executable, open source software development tools for the Atmel AVR series of RISC microprocessors and AVR32 series of microprocessors hosted on the Windows platform. It includes the GNU GCC compiler for C and C++.

From: WinAVR User Manual

Download PDF File 16. Windows Shell Tutorial

Most electronics enthusiasts are familiar with the graphical user interface, or GUI. The other user interface is known as a command shell. Cay Horstmann wrote, "A command shell is simply a window without any graphical decorations. You type commands, using the keyboard, and you see the results of the commands displayed as text. There are no icons, and you can use the mouse only in limited circumstances." Windows Shell is the Windows 'command shell'. WinAVR uses the Windows Shell; therefore, understanding the basics of a command shell is imperative. This tutorial should satisfy that need.

From: Windows Shell Tutorial

BeagleBone Black

Download PDF File 17. BeagleBone Black System Reference Manual Rev A5.4

This document is the System Reference Manual for the BeagleBone Black and covers its use and design. 116 pages.

Download PDF File 18. BeagleBone Black Schematic

Put out by 11 pages.

Download PDF File 19. BeagleBone Black Device Tree — Introduction

Created by Justin Cooper and published as an online tutorial by Adafruit. Cooper wrote, "The Device Tree (DT), and Device Tree Overlay are a way to describe hardware in a system. An example of this would be to describe how the UART interfaces with the system, which pins, how they should be muxed, the device to enable, and which driver to use. The original BeagleBone didn't use the DT, but the recently released BeagleBone Black was released with the DT and is now using the 3.8 Linux Kernel. The following pages will attempt to break down the concepts, and give examples on how and why you'd want to use the device tree in your every day development and hacking." 14 pages.

Download PDF File 20. BeagleBone Black Wiki — Official Version

This is the official BeagleBone Black Wiki maintained and supported by a non-profit 501(C) organization.

From: Beagleboard

Download PDF File 21. BeagleBone Black: Installing Operating Systems

This tutorial is written by Justin Cooper and published online at Adafruit. 17 pages.

From: Adafruit

BJT Transistor Theory

Download PDF File 22. BJT Transistor Theory

From: PCB Heaven

C Programming

Download File 23. Essential C

This Stanford CS Education document tries to summarize all the basic features of the C language. 45 pages.

From: Essential C

Download PDF File 24. Introduction to C Programming — Alex Allain

This tutorial is designed to be a stand-alone introduction to C, even if you've never programmed before.

From: Intro to C

Download PDF File 25. C Programming for Microcontrollers

This tutorial is written by Joe Pardue and published online at Smiley Micros. 39 pages.

From: C Programming for Microcontrollers

Download PDF File 26. Boolean Operators in C
Download PDF File 27. How C Programming Works

From: How Stuff Works

Download File 28. A Turotial on Pointers and Arrays in C — Ted Jensen

This document is intended to introduce pointers to beginning programmers in the C programming language. 53 pages.

Download PDF File 29. Programming in C: A Tutorial — Brian W. Kernighan

C is a computer language available on the GCOS and UNIX operating systems at Murray Hill and (in preliminary form) on OS/360 at Holmdel. C lets you write your programs clearly and simply. It has decent control flow facilities so your code can be read straight down the page, without labels or GOTO's; it lets you write code that is compact without being too cryptic; it encourages modularity and good program organization; and it provides good datastructuring facilities. 24 pages.

Download PDF File 30. How Boolean Logic Works

From: How Stuff Works.

Download PDF File 31. Development of the C Language — Dennis M. Ritchie

A Bell Labs/Lucent Technologies white paper. The C programming language was devised in the early 1970s as a system implementation language for the nascent Unix operating system. Derived from the typeless language BCPL, it evolved a type structure; created on a tiny machine as a tool to improve a meager programming environment, it has become one of the dominant languages of today. 20 pages.

Download PDF File 32. Unicode Chart

This file contains an excerpt from the character code tables and list of character names for the Unicode Standard, Version 5.2. 6 pages.

C++ Programming

Download PDF File 33. Introduction to C++ Programming — Alex Allain

This tutorial is an introduction to the C++ Language.

From: Intro to C

Download PDF File 34. Introduction to Operators in C/C++

This tutorial is an introductory tutorial for C and C++ programmers detailing how the various unary [having, consisting of, or acting on a single element, item, or component—monadic1] and binary operators work, and the effects that using them can bring.

From: C Programming for Microcontrollers


Download PDF File 35. Capacitor Chart

From: Capacitor Chart

Download PDF File 36. Capacitor Code Information

From: Capacitor Code Information

Download PDF File 37. Capacitor Conversion Chart

From: Capacitor Conversion Chart

Download PDF File 38. Ceramic Capacitor Codes

From: Ceramic Capacitor Codes

Current Sensing

Download PDF File 39. Low Side Current Sensing with Remote Shunt Resistor

From: Saleae 2014 Web Edition

Download PDF File 40. Understand Low Side vs High Side Current Sensing

From: Planet Analog

Download PDF File 41.A Current Sensing Tutorial — Part 1: Fundamentals

From: EE|Times

Download PDF File 42. A Current Sensing Tutorial — Part 2: Devices

From: EE|Times

Download PDF File 43. A Current Sensing Tutorial — Part 3: Accuracy

From: Embedded

Download PDF File 44. A Current Sensing Tutorial — Part 4: Layout & Troubleshooting Guidelines

From: EE|Times

Download PDF File 45. Arduino Current Sensor

From: Hacktronics

Electromagnetic Math — NASA

Download PDF File 46. Electromagnetic Math — NASA

A Brief Mathematical Guide to Electromagnetic Radiation. 191 pages.


Download PDF File 47. How to Use I2C on AVR Microcontrollers

From: ermicroblog

Download PDF File 48. I2C Primer

From: I2C

Download PDF File 49. I2C Tutorial

This I2C tutorial shows you how the I2C protocol works at the physical bit level. It only discusses single master mode (a single controlling device) as this is the most common use for I2C in a small system. 8 pages.

Download PDF File 50. I2C Tutorial — Philips Semiconductors

I2C-bus compatible ICs allow a system design to rapidly progress directly from a functional block diagram to a prototype. Moreover, since they 'clip' directly onto the I2C-bus without any additional external interfacing, they allow a prototype system to be modified or upgraded simply by 'clipping' or 'unclipping' ICs to or from the bus. 24 pages.

Download PDF File 51. I2C Guide — Texas Instruments

The I2C bus is used in a wide range of applications because it is simple and quick to use. It consists of a two-wire communication bus that supports bidirectional data transfer between a master and several slaves. The master or processor controls the bus — in particular, the serial clock (SCL) line. 13 pages.

Download PDF File 52. I2C Master Mode — Microchip

Overview and Use of the PICmicro® MSSP I2C Interface with a 24xx01x EEPROM. 88 pages.

Download PDF File 53. I2C Interface Tutorial — Asian Institute of Technology

In this tutorial we will learn how to use I2C interface by using Arduino Uno Rev3 with wire.h library. I2C stands for "Inter-Integrated Circuit", which was invented and developed by Philips' semiconductor division (now NXP) in the late 1970s. They need to reduce the number of data lines that travel between various integrated circuits. I2C interface is solution because it consists of only two lines where called SDA is carrying the data bits and the second called SCL is used as a clock signal. 6 pages.

LED Turorials — A list of 19 LED Tutorials

Download PDF File 54. 19 LED Tutorials

When working with LED Lighting products for the first time or even if you are an experienced user certain aspects of LED Lighting can be a bit confusing. If you do not have all of the correct components or you do not properly calculate your LED supplies then you risk damaging your product, fire hazard, or simply your product not working at all. Follow these simple LED Lighting Tutorials in order to be certain that you are using and installing all of you LED products appropriately. 6 pages.

Lessons in Electric Circuits

A six-volume free series of textbooks on the subjects of electricity and electronics by Tony R. Kuphaldt.

Download PDF File 55. Volume 1: DC

This book discusses DC. 560 pages.

Download PDF File 56. Volume 2: AC

This book discusses AC. 568 pages.

Download PDF File 57. Volume 3: Semiconductors

This book discusses semiconductors. 568 pages.

Download PDF File 58. Volume 4: Digital

This book discusses digital electronics. 517 pages.

Download PDF File 59. Volume 5: Reference

This book discusses equations and laws. 169 pages.

Download PDF File 60. Volume 6: Experiments

Electronics is a science, and a very accessible science at that. With other areas of scientific study, expensive equipment is generally required to perform any non-trivial experiments. Not so with electronics. Many advanced concepts may be explored using parts and equipment totaling under a few hundred US dollars. This is good, because hands-on experimentation is vital to gaining scientific knowledge about any subject. 425 pages.


Download PDF File 61. A Beginner's Guide to Magnetometers

From: Hackaday.

Download PDF File 62. Earth Magnetometer Project

Discusses the effects of a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) on Earth;s magnetic field. 17 pages.

Download PDF File 63. Geomagnetism Tutorial — William D. Reeve

This tutorial is written for amateur radio astronomers and amateur radio operators who wish to understand the causes and characteristics of Earth's magnetic field and how it is affected by solar activity. 35 pages.

Download PDF File 64. Themis Magnetometer Line Plots — William D. Reeve

Teacher's Guide. 9 pages.


Download PDF File 65. Microcontroller Interfacing Techniques — BiPOM Electronics

Micro-controllers are useful to the extent that they communicate with other devices, such as sensors, motors, switches, keypads, displays, memory and even other micro-controllers./p>

Many interface methods have been developed over the years to solve the complex problem of balancing circuit design criteria such as features, cost, size, weight, power consumption, reliability, availability, manufacturability.

Many microcontroller designs typically mix multiple interfacing methods. In a very simplistic form, a micro-controller system can be viewed as a system that reads from (monitors) inputs, performs processing and writes to (controls) outputs. 15 pages.

Download PDF File 66. Synchronous Microcontroller Communication Interfaces: SPI and Microwire versus I2C — Microcontroller Pros

This paper is the first in a series about various microcontroller communication interfaces, their application, features, benefits and disadvantages. 13 pages.

Download PDF File 67. Microcontrollers Made Easy — ST Electronics

A typical microcontroller has bit manipulation instructions. A microcontroller is a highly integrated device which includes, on one chip, all or most of the parts needed to perform an application control function. Microcontrollers come in many varieties. Depending on the power and features that are needed, customers might choose a 4, 8, 16, or 32 bit microcontroller. 12 pages.


Download PDF File 68. Controlling Noise & Radiation in Mixed-Signal & Digital Systems — National Semiconductor

High digital edge rates correspond to high frequencies and as digital rates increase and edges slew faster, it is becoming necessary to use high frequency, that is to say, analog, techniques in the design of printed circuit boards.

All lines carrying signals, digital or analog, are transmission lines, not just simple traces. We can often consider these lines to be simple traces and get away with it, but that can often be a dangerous consideration as far as the integrity of the signal is concerned.

Transmission lines, of course, need to be properly terminated to avoid signal reflections that can cause both distortion and radiation. The distortion, of course, can lead to a change of timing and jitter. The jitter, in turn, results in noise in the ADC conversion result. 35 pages.

Download PDF File 69. Receiver Sensitivity & Equivalent Noise Bandwidth — High Frequency Electronics

From: High Frequency Electronics.

Download PDF File 70. Receiver Sensitivity — University of Arizona

A measure of a good receiver is to have the same performance with the lowest level of incident optical power. 10 pages.

Op Amps

Download PDF File 71. Difference Amplifier/Common Mode Rejection Ratio

From: Difference Amplifier/Common Mode Rejection Ratio

Download PDF File 72. Differential Amplifier — Brief

From: Electronics Tutorials

Download PDF File 73. A Differential Op-Amp Circuit Collection — Texas Insturments

All op-amps are differential input devices. Designers are accustomed to working with these inputs and connecting each to the proper potential. What happens when there are two outputs? How does a designer connect the second output? How are gain stages and filters developed? This application note will answer these questions and give a jumpstart to apprehensive designers. 17 pages.

Download PDF File 74. Fully Differential Op Amps Made Easy — Texas Instruments

Fully differential op amps may be unfamiliar to some designers. This application report gives designers the essential information to get a fully differential design up and running. 10 pages.

Download PDF File 75. Op-Amps

From: Op Amps

Download PDF File 76. Op Amp Circuits

From: Op Amp Circuits

Download PDF File 77. Operational Amplifiers: Theory and Practice by James Roberge

From: OCW MIT EDU Resources

Power Saving Techniques for Microprocessors

Download PDF File 78. Power Saving Tutorial

From: Gammon Forum

Power Supplies

Download PDF File 79. Introduction to Power supplies — Texas Instruments

A power supply converting AC line voltage to DC power must perform the following functions at high efficiency and at low cost:

1. Rectification: Convert the incoming AC line voltage to DC voltage.

2. Voltage transformation: Supply the correct DC voltage level(s).

3. Filtering: Smooth the ripple of the rectified voltage.

4. Regulation: Control the output voltage level to a constant value irrespective of line, load and temperature changes.

5. Isolation: Separate electrically the output from the input voltage source.

6. Protection: Prevent damaging voltage surges from reaching the output; provide back-up power or shut down during a brown-out.

11 pages.

Download PDF File 80. Power Supply Design Guide — Intel

This document provides design suggestions for various power supply form factors. The power supplies are primarily intended for use with desktop system designs. It should not be inferred that all power supplies must conform exactly to the content of this document, though there are key parameters that define mechanical fit across a common set of platforms. Since power supply needs vary depending on system configuration, the design specifics described are not intended to support all possible systems. 104 pages.

Download PDF File 81. Power Supply Glossary — Tri-Mag

A Basic Power Supply Glossary

Download PDF File 82. Understanding the Linear Power Supply — Agilent Technologies

In terms of performance, a linear regulated supply has very precise regulating properties and responds quickly to variations of the line and load. Hence, its line and load regulation and transient recovery time are superior to supplies using other regulation techniques. A linear power supply also exhibits low ripple and noise, tolerates ambient temperature changes, and is highly reliable due to its circuit simplicity. 8 pages.

Raspberry Pi

Download PDF File 83. Power Saving Tutorial

From: Gammon Forum

Download PDF File 84. Raspberry Pi: the Unofficial Tutorial

From: makeuseof

Download PDF File 85. 98 Raspberry Pi Guides 529 Pages — Adafruit Industries

From: Adafruit Industries

RTC Tutorial

Download PDF File 86. DS3231 — Maxim Integrated

The DS3231 is a low-cost, extremely accurate I2C realtime clock (RTC) with an integrated temperaturecompensated crystal oscillator (TCXO) and crystal. The device incorporates a battery input, and maintains accurate timekeeping when main power to the device is interrupted. The integration of the crystal resonator enhances the long-term accuracy of the device as well as reduces the piece-part count in a manufacturing line. 20 pages.

Download PDF File 87. The ChronoDot RTC — Macetech

From: Macetech


Download PDF File 88. Accelerometer Sensor Terminology — Freescale Semiconductor

This is a quick reference guide introducing the key definitions for Freescale?s accelerometers to help users better interpret and understand the parameters from our data sheets and application notes. 3 pages.

Download PDF File 89. Image Sensor Terminology — ON Semiconductor

This technical note has been written to clarify some of the terminology used to describe the operation and performance of solid state image sensors. It is intended for use by anyone considering using these sensors in a systems design, and particularly for first time users. 27 pages.

Download PDF File 90. Photoelectric Sensor Terminology — Automation Direct

These sensors function in an identical manner to energetic diffuse sensors, but using the angle of incidence, rather than the amount of reflected light. For this reason, the operating distance depends only to a slight extent on the target's size, color, or surface nature. The target can therefore be accurately recognized even on a light background. 4 pages.

Download PDF File 91. Pressure Sensor Terminology — Honeywell

Terminology prepared by Honeywell. 6 pages.

Download PDF File 92. Sensor Glossary — Gordy's Sensors

Standard sensor terminology. 11 pages.

Download PDF File 93. Sensor Terminology — National Instruments Measurement Fundamentals

This tutorial is part of the National Instruments Measurement Fundamentals series. Each tutorial in this series, will teach you a specific topic of common measurement applications, by explaining the theory and giving practical examples. This tutorial will cover sensors and the terminology associated with them. For the complete list of tutorials, return to the NI Measurement Fundamentals Main page. 5 pages.


Download PDF File 94. NASA Student Handbook for Hand Soldering

The intent of this Hand Soldering is to train personnel who instruct, fabricate, or inspect space flight hardware to NASA Standard Soldered Electrical Connections (NASA-STD-8379.3). This is a hands-on course. 125 pages.


Download PDF File 95. Daisy-Chaining SPI Devices — Maxim AN

In typical SPI systems with one master and multiple slaves, a dedicated chip-select signal is used to address an individual slave. As the number of slaves increase, so do the number of chip-select lines. In this situation, the board layout of the system can become quite a challenge. One layout alternative is daisy-chaining. This article explains the details of a daisy-chained SPI system and shows how software can be used to propagate commands through a string of slaves. 8 pages.

Download PDF File 96. C8051F700 SPI Overview — Silicon Laboratories

Overview of SPI using the C8051F700. 23 pages.

Download PDF File 97. Low Power and Embedded Systems — Maxim AN

This was originally written as a workbook, but has now been changed to a worked example for how to interface a flash memory to the microcontroller using the Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI). The original exercises are now described as steps, with an explanation of the testing involved at each step. 6 pages.

Download PDF File 98. SPI with Multiple Processors — Freescale Semiconductor

As the complexity of user applications increases, many designers find themselves needing multiple microprocessors to provide necessary functionality in a circuit. Communication between multiple processors can often be difficult, especially when differing processors are used. A possible solution to this problem is usage of the serial peripheral interface (SPI), an interface intended for communication between integrated circuits on the same printed wire board. 28 pages.

Download PDF File 99. SPI Introduction

SPI is a simple, 3-wire, full duplex, synchronous serial data transfer that interfaces to many devices, even many non-SPI peripherals. It can be a master or slave interface. 10 pages.


Download PDF File 100. A Guide to Debouncing — The Ganssle Group

When the contacts of any mechanical switch bang together they rebound a bit before settling, causing bounce. Debouncing, of course, is the process of removing the bounces, of converting the brutish realities of the analog world into pristine ones and zeros. Both hardware and software solutions exist, though by far the most common are those done in a snippet of code. 26 pages.

Download PDF File 101. AVR Tutorial: Switch Input and Debounce — Micah Carrick

Due to mechanical properties of a switch, when a switch is closed, there is a period of time in which the electrical connection "bounces" between open and closed. To a microcontroller, this "bouncing" can be interpreted as multiple button pushes. Therefore, we must either build a circuit to supress the "bouncing" or we must do so in our software. This is known as "debouncing a switch".

From: Micah Carrick

Download PDF File 102. Elementary Switch Circuits — 1728 Software Systems

From: 1728 Software Systems


Download File 103. Demystifying the TLC5940

This book explains how to turn the datasheet and application notes for the TLC5940, a 16 channel LED driver with dot correction and grayscale PWM control, into an unencumbered C library for use with an AVR microcontroller. 76 pages.

Download File 104. BTLC5940 Cascading — Texas Instruments

Described in this document are application ideas and reference designs for the TLC5940 LED driver. 6 pages.

Download File 105. TLC5940 Datasheet — Texas Instruments

The TLC5940 is a 16-channel, constant-current sink LED driver. Each channel has an individually adjustable 4096-step grayscale PWM brightness. LED Power Supply Voltage up to 17 V control and a 64-step, constant-current sink (dot correction). The dot correction adjusts the brightness variations between LED channels and other LED drivers. The dot correction data is stored in an integrated EEPROM. Both grayscale control and dot correction are accessible via a serial interface. A single external resistor sets the maximum current value of all 16 channels. 32 pages.

Download File 106. TLC5940 Dot Correction — Texas Instruments

TLC5940 dot correction compensates for variations in LED brightness 4 pages.

Download File 107. TLC5940 High LED Supply Voltages and Series LEDs — Texas Instruments

The TLC5940 drives 16 LED channels with each channel able to drive a number of series LEDs. The number of series LEDs the TLC5940 can drive is dictated by the available LED supply voltage, and the voltage rating of the OUTx pins. However, in applications where higher LED supply voltages are necessary, such as when driving many series LEDs, a MOSFET placed in series with the OUTx pin and series LED(s) can be used to widen the range of applications where the TLC5940 can be used. 6 pages.

Download File 108. TLC5940 Power Management Guide — Texas Instruments

Included in this selection guide are design factors, featured products, graphic representations of portfolios and parametric tables. 121 pages.

Download File 109. TLC5940 Programming Flowchart — Texas Instruments

TLC5940 Programming Flowchart. 2 pages.

Download PDF File 110. TLC5940 PWM Dimming — Texas Instruments

TLC5940 PWM dimming provides superior color quality in LED video displays. 4 pages.

Download PDF File 111. TLC5940 User Guide — Texas Instruments

This user's guide describes the characteristics, operation, and use of the TLC5940EVM-106 evaluation module (EVM). This EVM is designed to help the user evaluate and test the various operating modes of the TLC5940. 18 pages.

Tri-State Buffer Tutorial

Download PDF File 112. Tri-State Buffer Tutorial — Wisc-Online

Students observe the operation of a tri-state buffer used in digital electronics.

From: Wisc-Online


Download PDF File 113. USB HID Usage Tables


Download PDF File 114. Embedded USB Design by Example — John Hyde

FTDI commissioned this e-Book. 137 pages.

Code examples for the eBook are available from the FTDI website at: Code Examples

Download PDF File 115. USB Online Interface Tutorial Covering Basic Fundamentals

Very useful. From: EE Herald

Download PDF File 116. High Speed USB Design Guidelines — Atmel

This document provides guidelines for integrating a AT85C51SND3Bx high speed USB device controller onto a 4-layer PCB. The material covered can be broken into two main categories: board design guidelines and layout examples. 8 pages.